| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact Us |  
J Korean Gerontol Nurs Search


J Korean Gerontol Nurs > Volume 16(3):2014 > Article

Original Article

J Korean Gerontol Nurs. 2014 Dec;16(3):288-298. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17079/jkgn.2014.16.3.288
© 2014 Korean Gerontological Nursing Society
Risk for Dysphagia and Nutritional Status in Community-dwelling Elders
Sun Woo Yim,1Young Hae Kim,2and Hyun-Mi Son*2
1Department of Nursing, Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Busan, Korea.
2College of Nursing, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.

*Corresponding author: Son, Hyun Mi. College of Nursing, Pusan National University, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan 626-870, Korea. Tel: +82-51-510-8315, Fax: +82-51-510-8308, Email: hmson@pusan.ac.kr
Received August 25, 2014; Revised November 15, 2014; Accepted December 08, 2014.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of this study was to examine risk for dysphagia in community-dwelling elders and to identify the level of risk and factors influencing nutritional status.


During March and April, 2013, face-to-face interviews or self-reports were conducted with 292 elders. The research tools were the Dysphagia Risk Assessment Scale and Full MNA(Mini Nutritional Assessment).


The risk for dysphagia had a mean score of 9.23 points and 63.7% of the participants were in the risk group. The mean score for nutritional status was 22.28. Over half of the participants (56.2%) were regarded as being in the risk group for malnutrition, whereas 8.2% were regarded as being in the malnutrition group. In terms of the factors influencing nutritional status, the most significant factor was risk for dysphagia, followed by educational level and calf circumference.


The findings indicate that more than half of the community-dwelling elders were at risk for dysphagia or in a state of malnutrition risk. The risk for dysphagia was a major factor influencing nutritional status. Therefore, dysphagia should be considered as a major health problem in older adults and should be assessed and managed early enough to avoid malnutrition.

Keywords: Dysphagia, Nutritional status, Elderly, Community.


Table 1
Risk for Dysphagia and Nutritional Status of the Elders in the Community (N=292)

Table 2
Nutritional Status according to General Characteristics (N=292)

Table 3
Nutritional Status according to Eating Habits (N=292)

Table 4
Relationship between Risk for Dysphagia and Nutritional status (N=292)

Table 5
Factors Predicting Nutritional Status (N=292)


This article is a revision based on a part of the first author's master's thesis from Pusan National University.

1. Chen CC, Bai YY, Huang GH, Tang ST. Revisiting the concept of malnutrition in older people. J Clin Nurs 2007;16(11):2015–2026.
2. Chung SH, Sohn CM. Nutritional status of hospitalized geriatric patients using by the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Korean J Community Nutr 2005;10(5):645–653.
3. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods 2007;39(2):175–191.
4. Foley NC, Martin RE, Salter KL, Teasell RW. A review of the relationship between dysphagia and malnutrition following stroke. J Rehabil Med 2009;41(9):707–713.
5. Fukada J, Kamakura Y, Manzai T, Kitaike T. Development of dysphagia risk screening system for elderly persons. Jpn J Dysphagia Rehabil 2006;10(1):31–42.
6. Guigoz Y, Vellas B, Garry PJ. Mini Nutritional Assessment: A practical assessment tool for grading the nutritional state of elderly patients. Facts Res Gerontol 1994;4 Suppl 2:15–59.
7. Ha MJ, Park HS. A study on health and nutrition status of elderly poor people living alone. J Korean Gerontol Nurs 2002;4(2):123–133.
8. Han HJ, Kim NC. Mini Nutritional Assessment of elders in rural areas. J Korean Gerontol Nurs 2007;9(1):22–28.
9. Han KH, Choi MS, Park JS. Nutritional risk and its related factors evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment for the elderly who are meal service participants. Korean J Nutr 2004;37(8):675–687.
10. Kim SH, Choi-Kwon S. Nutritional status among elderly Korean women and related factors. J Korean Biol Nurs Sci 2012;14(1):16–24.
11. Lee HS. Nutritional status of the hospitalized patients with high risk of dysphagia in Korea. J Korean Dysphagia Soc 2011;1(2):75–79.
12. Lee JE, Kim W, Kim BS, Jang SJ, Kang SY, Kim HJ, et al. Nutritional assessment of geriatric stroke patients in a rehabilitation hospital. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med 2006;30(6):604–610.
13. Lim YM, Kim JS. Characteristics of eating habits in community dwelling elders. J Korean Gerontol Nurs 2007;9(2):133–142.
14. Logemann JA, Stewart C, Hurd J, Aschman D, Matthews N. Diagnosis and management of dysphagia in seniors. 2008Retrieved March 12, 2013
from http://americandysphagianetwork.org/physician_education_course
15. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korean Elderly Survey 2008 (Publication No. 11-1351000-000316-12). Seoul: Author; 2009.
16. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korean Elderly Survey 2011 (Publication No. 11-1352000-000672-12). Seoul: Author; 2012.
17. Miura H, Kariyasu M, Yamasaki K, Arai Y. Evaluation of chewing and swallowing disorders among frail community-dwelling elderly individuals. J Oral Rehabil 2007;34(6):422–427.
18. Okamoto N, Tomioka K, Saeki K, Iwamoto J, Morikawa M, Harano A, et al. Relationship between swallowing problems and tooth loss in community-dwelling independent elderly adults: The Fujiwara-Kyo study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60(5):849–853.
19. Park J. The prevalence and related factors of dysphagia at a long-term care facility. Seoul: Seoul National University; 2011.
Unpublished master's thesis
20. Rofes L, Arreola V, Almirall J, Cabré M, Campins L, García-Peris P, et al. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia and its nutritional and respiratory complications in the elderly. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011;2011(2011):Article 818973.
Retrieved October 1, 2013, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/818979
21. Saletti A, Lindgren EY, Johansson L, Cederholm T. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment in an institutionalized elderly population in Sweden. Gerontology 2000;46(3):139–145.
22. Seoul Metropolitan Fire & Disaster Headquarters. Notice: Report material: Seniors should be careful eating rice cake during Korean Thanksgiving Day, Seoul city. 2012 Sep 19;Retrieved May 1, 2013
from http://fire.seoul.go.kr/fdhq/pages/commBoard.do?mode=boardDetail&boardIdx=6917&tableIdx=4&keyfield=&keyword=&curPage=3&menuCode=0303000000
23. Son DH, Chai KJ. A literature review on treatment of dysphagia after stroke. J Soc Occup Ther Aged Dement 2007;1(2):80–92.
24. Statistics Korea. 2012 Statistics on the aged. 2012 Sep 27;Retrieved October 4, 2012
from http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/2/1/index.board?bmode=read&aSeq=260368
25. Vedantam A, Subramanian V, Rao NV, John KR. Malnutrition in free-living elderly in rural south India: Prevalence and risk factors. Public Health Nutr 2010;13(9):1328–1332.
26. Whang SA. Prevalence and influencing factors of dysphagia risk in the community-dwelling elderly. J Korean Gerontol Soc 2014;34(1):37–48.
27. Won YS. The relationship of oral state and dietary habit to health condition among elderly people. Seoul: Yonsei University; 2003.
Unpublished master's thesis
28. World Health Organization West Pacific Region, International Association for the Study of Obesity, and International Obesity Task Force. The Asia-Pacific perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. Sydney, Australia: Health Communications Australia Pty. Ltd; 2000Retrieved April 1, 2013
from http://www.wpro.who.int/nutrition/documents/Redefining_obesity/en/
29. Yun JH, Lim HJ, Woo MH, Ahn TB, Choue R. Study on the qualities of diet and life in Parkinson's disease patients according to their nutritional status. Korean J Nutr 2012;45(3):240–251.
30. Yun OJ, Lee YH. The effect of singing intervention for women elderly with dysphagia risk. Korean J Adult Nurs 2012;24(4):380–389.
Editorial Office
College of Nursing, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03760 Republic of Korea
Tel : +82-2-3277-6693   Fax : +82-2-3277-6693   E-mail: jkgneditor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © by The Korean Gerontological Nursing Society.     Developed in M2PI