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J Korean Gerontol Nurs > Volume 16(1):2014 > Article

Original Article

J Korean Gerontol Nurs. 2014 Apr;16(1):85-93. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17079/jkgn.2014.16.1.85
© 2014 Korean Gerontological Nursing Society
Pain, Wisdom and Health Conservation in Older Adults with Chronic Diseases
Kiwol Sung*
College of Nursing, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea.

*Corresponding author: Sung, Kiwol. College of Nursing, Catholic University of Daegu, 3056-6 Daemyeong 4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718, Korea. Tel: +82-53-650-4826, Fax: +82-53-650-4392, Email: kwseng@cu.ac.kr
Received October 22, 2013; Revised April 03, 2014; Accepted April 11, 2014.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study was done to identify the relationships among pain, wisdom, and health conservation, and to identify the influence of pain and wisdom on health conservation among the Korean elders.


Participants were 188 elders living in the city of Daegu. Data collection was done through interviews during April and May, 2013. Pain was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, wisdom with the Wisdom Scale for Korean elders, and health conservation with the Health Conservation Scale. Data analysis included one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, and stepwise multiple regression, done with the SPSS/WIN 19.0 program.


A negative correlation was found between pain and health conservation and a positive correlation between wisdom and health conservation. Pain explained 8% and wisdom explained 36% of the variance in health conservation.


The results indicate that to increase health conservation among Korean elders with chronic disease, nursing interventions are needed to decrease pain and increase wisdom.

Keywords: Pain, Health conservation, Chronic disease, Aged.


Table 1
General Characteristics and Difference in Health Conservation according to General Characteristics of Participants (N=188)

Table 2
Levels of Pain, Wisdom, and Health Conservation in Participants (N=188)

Table 3
Correlations between Variables, Pain, Wisdom, and Health Conservation in Older Adults (N=188)

Table 4
Explanatory Power of Pain and Wisdom on Health Conservation (N=188)


This work was supported by research grants from the Catholic University of Daegu in 2013.

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