Warning: mkdir(): Permission denied in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 81 Warning: fopen(/home/virtual/jkgn/journal/upload/ip_log/ip_log_2022-08.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 83 Warning: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 84 Feelings of Guilt and Depression in Family Caregivers after Nursing Home Placement of Older Adults
| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact Us |  
J Korean Gerontol Nurs > Volume 16(3):2014 > Article

Original Article

J Korean Gerontol Nurs. 2014 Dec;16(3):276-287. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17079/jkgn.2014.16.3.276
© 2014 Korean Gerontological Nursing Society
Feelings of Guilt and Depression in Family Caregivers after Nursing Home Placement of Older Adults
Sun Young Youand Young Ran Tak*
College of Nursing, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

*Corresponding author: Tak, Young Ran. College of Nursing, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2220-0700, Fax: +82-2-2295-2074, Email: yrtak@hanyang.ac.kr
Received September 24, 2014; Revised November 01, 2014; Accepted November 30, 2014.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study was to investigate family caregivers' feelings of guilt and depression and identify factors predicting depression after nursing home placement of older adult family members.


Data were collected using questionnaires completed by 112 family caregivers of older adults in nursing homes in Seoul and Gyonggi Province. Feelings of guilt in family caregivers were measure using the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire (CGQ) and depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis.


Average score for depression was 22.3 indicating depression status in family members. Factors predicting depression were feelings of guilt (β=.39, p<.001) and older adults' participation in the decision-making process for nursing home admission (β=.28, p=.001), which together accounted for 28.7% of the variance in depression.


Findings show that families of elders in nursing homes experience depression, which can be reduced by a family intervention program designed to decrease feelings of guilt and provide guidance on older adults' participation in decision-making. The nursing home placement process should include help in understanding the importance of the role of family in promoting positive relationships between the elder and their family.

Keywords: Nursing home, Aged, Family caregiver, Guilt, Depression.


Table 1
General Characteristics of Residents and their Family Caregivers (N=112)

Table 2
Level of Feelings of Guilt and Depression in Family Caregivers (N=112)

Table 3
Difference in Depression in Family Caregivers by General Characteristics (N=112)

Table 4
Correlations among Variables (N=112)

Table 5
Predictive Factors for Depression in Family Caregivers of Older Adults in Nursing Home (N=112)


This article is a condensed from the first author's master thesis from Hanyang University.

1. Brodaty H, Donkin M. Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2009;11(2):217–228.
2. Brown J. The most difficult decision: Dementia and the move into residential aged care (Discussion Paper No. 5). North Ryde, NSW: Alzheimer's Australia NSW; 2012.
3. Chon KK, Choi SC, Yang Y. Integrated adaptation of CES-D in Korea. Korean J Health Psychol 2001;6(1):59–76.
4. Davis JD, Tremont G, Bishop DS, Fortinsky H. A telephone-delivered psychosocial intervention improves dementia caregiver adjustment following nursing home placement. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2011;26(4):380–387.
5. Gaugler JE, Roth DL, Haley WE, Mittelman S. Can counseling and support reduce burden and depressive symptoms in caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease during the transition to institutionalization? Results from the New York University caregiver intervention study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56(3):421–428.
6. Goh J, Hwang I, Oh H. The experiences of the newly admitted elderly residents in nursing home. J Korean Gerontol Soc 2009;29(2):477–488.
7. Gonyea JG, Paris R, de Saxe Zerden L. Adult daughters and aging mothers: The role of guilt in the experience of caregivers burden. Aging Ment Health 2008;12(5):559–567.
8. Hennings J, Froggatt K, Payne S. Spouse caregivers of people with advanced dementia in nursing homes: A longitudinal narrative study. Palliat Med 2013;2(7):683–691.
9. Hong SW, Son M. Family caregivers' experiences utilizing a nursing home for their elderly family members. J Korean Acad Nurs 2007;37(5):724–735.
10. Lee HS. Caregiver burden in caring for elders before and after long-term care service in Korea. J Korean Acad Nurs 2012;42(2):236–247.
11. Lee JY, Kim A. Relationship between family burden, family support depression, and satisfaction of the elderly caregiver. J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs 2009;20(1):41–48.
12. Lee YJ, Kim JH, Kim B. An ethnography on stigma of families having old people admitted to nursing home in Korea. J Korean Gerontol Soc 2010;30(3):1005–1020.
13. Losada A, Márquez-Gonzźlez M, Penñacoba C, Romero-Moreno R. Development and validation of the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire. Int Psychogeriatr 2010;22(4):650–660.
14. Majerovitz SD. Predictors of burden and depression among nursing home family caregivers. Aging Ment Health 2007;11(3):323–329.
15. Mast ME. To use or not to use: A literature review of factors that influence family caregivers' use of support services. J Gerontol Nurs 2012;39(1):20–28.
16. Miller EA, Rosenheck RA, Schneider S. Caregiver burden, health utilities, and institutional service use in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012;27(4):382–393.
17. Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2011 Elderly Survey (Issue No. 11-1352000- 000672-12). Seoul: Author; 2012.
18. Ministry of Health & Welfare. Publication of '2013 statistical yearbook on the long-term care insurance for the elderly'. 2014 Jun 17;Retrieved August 4, 2014
from http://www.mw.go.kr/front_new/al/sal0301vw.jsp?PAR_MENU_ID=04&MENU_ID=0403&CONT_SEQ=301390&page=1
19. Park JH, Kim W. A review of the epidemiology of depression in Korea. J Korean Med Assoc 2011;54(4):362–369.
20. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977;1(3):385–401.
21. Roach L, Laidlaw K, Gillanders D, Quinn K. Validation of the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire (CGQ) in a sample of British dementia caregivers. Int Psychogeriatr 2013;25(12):2001–2010.
22. Sansoni J, Anderson KH, Varona LM, Varela G. Caregivers of Alzheimer's patients and factors influencing institutionalization of loved ones: Some considerations on existing literature. Ann Ig 2013;25(3):235–246.
23. Seeher K, Low LF, Reppermund S, Brodaty H. Predictors and outcomes for caregivers of people with mild cognitive impairment: A systematic literature review. Alzheimers Dement 2013;9(3):346–355.
24. Son JH, Yang W. A study on characteristics of considering healing environmental concept in domestic healthcare architectures schematic design - Focusing on the prizewinner of healthcare architecture design competition since 2000. J Architect Inst Korea 2012;28(7):125–132.
25. Statistics Korea. 2012 Statistics on the aged. 2012 Sep 27;Retrieved May 27, 2013
from http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/2/1/index.board?bmode=read&aSeq=260368
26. Stone LJ, Clements A. The effects of nursing home placement on the perceived levels of caregiver burden. J Gerontol Soc Work 2009;52(3):193–214.
27. Sury L, Burns K, Brodaty H. Moving in: Adjustment of people living with dementia going into a nursing home and their families. Int Psychogeriatr 2013;25(6):867–876.
28. Tsai HH, Tsai F. Prevalence and factors related to depressive symptoms among family caregivers of nursing home residents in Taiwan. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48(7):1145–1152.
29. Tyrrell J, Genin N, Myslinski M. Freedom of choice and decision-making in health and social care: Views of older patients with early-stage dementia and their carers. Dementia 2006;5(4):479–502.
30. Yun EG. A research on the how caregiving burden for the frail elder effect on caregiver's guilt: Comparing between home-care elderly and nursing home elderly. J Welf Aged 2010;47:289–307.
Editorial Office
College of Nursing, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03760 Republic of Korea
Tel : +82-2-3277-6693   Fax : +82-2-3277-6693   E-mail: jkgneditor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © by The Korean Gerontological Nursing Society.     Developed in M2PI